Hello there. After strolling around looking at builds on this site for a while I've realized one thing; that most people don't know anything about runes.. So I thought I'd do something like this to inform people.
The builds are just examples using only primary runes.
All capital letter words are abbrevations. Hold your mouse over the word to see it's meaning.
1. Primary/Secondary, what does it mean?
2. Primary runes
3.Flat stat bonuses 4. Useful secondary runes
5. Recommended buys
6. Armor penetration, crit or AD
Primary/Secondary, what does it mean?
So what are primary and secondary runes? They are caregories that specify wether a bonus will be big or small. Primary runes mean big bonuses, secondary means small.
Let's use an example: Greater Glyph of Focus(primary) > Greater Seal of Focus(secondary) > Greater Mark of Focus(secondary)
They give: -0,65%, -0,29% and -0,16%. As you can see the secondary runes are not even half as good. So even if you have all CDR seals and marks you'll still get less than from just the glyphs.
So instead of getting Greater Glyph of Strength and Greater Mark of Focus you should get Greater Glyph of Focus and Greater Mark of Strength. For much bigger bonuses.
Since the bonuses often are more than twice as big, using only primary runes is almost always the best choice.
While some of you may gladly sacrifice a big bonus for a very small bonus to damage, I don't think that's a good idea. (as an example)Survivability is just as important as damage since you can't deal any dmg while dead. (obviously..)
Now that you know what they are let's take a look at which bonuses are primary where.
Marks: penetration, attack speed, critical dmg/chance and AD.
Seals: HP, dodge, armor and regeneration (mana-reg too!).
Glyphs: CDR, AP, MR and mana.
Quintessences don't have any secondary runes. They're all primary.
Though there are utility runes only availible in quints. Those are +1,5%movespeed, +2%exp gain, +1gold/10sec and -5%time spent dead. They work with most champs but are rarely needed. I for one am not too fond of them. Other things are often more important.
Worth noting is that most flat stat bonuses are much larger in quintessences. (more on that below)
Flat stat bonuses
Marks, seals and glyphs give much smaller flat stat bonuses to most stats. So "per level" bonuses are usually better in these categories.
AP, mana-reg, HP and HP-reg are the bonuses that are much better in "per level" form. (unless you really need it early on)
Examples: Greater Seal of Clarity, Greater Seal of Regeneration and Greater Seal of Vitality all have over 4 times bigger bonuses than Greater Seal of Replenishment, Greater Seal of Vigorand Greater Seal of Fortitude.
All those bonuses are normal in quintessences though. So it's a good idea to get them there.
AD, AP, armor, MR, mana, mana-reg, HP and HP-reg are the bonuses that are larger in quints. The biggest difference is in AP and HP though.
Examples: Greater Quintessence of Fortitude and Greater Quintessence of Potency have over 5 times bigger bonuses than Greater Seal of Fortitude and Greater Glyph of Potency.
Useful secondary runes
While most secondary runes are ****, there are some that give almost as big bonuses as the primary ones.
Example: Greater Seal of Clarity Greater Glyph of Clarity, 12,96/16,2 = 0,8. The glyphs only give 20% less than the seals. So these glyphs are worth getting with those who need mana-reg in glyphs.
Here are the good ones I've found so far:
Greater Mark of Warding, Greater Mark of Resilience, Greater Glyph of Insight and Greater Glyph of Clarity
It's often a good idea to use armor or MR marks when playing a magic damage tank that doesn't rely on his dmg output with Archaic Knowledge. Since 15% of your magic pen will be useless with Archaic Knowledge. 7,27 of your magic pen will be effective(0,85*8,55= 7,27).
I'm gonna state some good runes to have for different kinds of champions here.
Marks: Magic pen. Armor or MR is good for some defensive casters.
Glyphs: CDR or AP/lvl.
Quintessences: HP or AP. Magic pen is not adviced unless you've got bad AP ratios.
Marks: Armor pen or attack speed. AD, AD/lvl and crit chance works with the exeptions mentioned here.
Seals: Dodge, mana-reg/lvl or HP/lvl.
Glyphs: MR, MR/lvl or CDR.
Quintessences: HP, armor pen or attack speed. AD, AD/lvl and crit chance works with the exeptions mentioned here.
Marks: Armor pen or attack speed. Magic pen is not recommended for those with Archaic Knowledge.
Seals: Mana-reg/lvl, HP/lvl or dodge.
Glyphs: CDR or AP/lvl.
Quintessences: HP, AP, or armor pen.
Marks: MR, armor or penetration. (penetration depends on what kind of dmg you mostly deal)
Seals: Dodge, armor or HP/lvl.
Glyphs: MR or MR/lvl. (are the best unless you desperately need some CDR)
Quintessences: HP, armor or MR.
These runes will be very useful most of the time. But all champions doesn't fit into these categories. Ninjas for example might have more use of energy runes. You'll simply have to think about what is needed most and try to fill the holes in your masteries.
Universally good runes
These are the runes that are great with the largest amounts of champions. If you want to save money; buy these. When you've got these you'll be able to play every champion in the game with decent runes at worst.
Greater Mark of Desolation(3690IP) and Greater Mark of Insight(3690IP).
Greater Seal of Clarity(1845IP) and Greater Seal of Evasion(7380IP).
Greater Glyph of Focus(7380IP) and Greater Glyph of Warding(1845IP).
Greater Quintessence of Fortitude(6150IP). HP quints are good for all champions in the game. They are never bad.
A complete build will cost 19065IP. (all of them will. Tank, dps and mage)
They cost 31980IP together.
I know it takes a while to save up to, but it's definetly worth it. I use these runes most of the time when I play, regardless of who I'm playing as.
Armor penetration, crit or AD?
Armor penetration runes is the best choice for most physical champions. (even after the nerf) AD runes deal more dmg at early levels, but armor pen deals much more dmg than AD in lategame. They will also make physical spells deal more damage. Physical spells are spells that deal physical damage. Like Ezreals' Mystic Shot, Pantheon's Heartseeker Strike & Spear Shot and Urgot's Acid Hunter. These spells will always deal most damage with armor penetration runes.
AD or AD/lvl is better than armor penetration for champs who have abilities that scale with AD but deal magical dmg.
Crit chance and crit dmg runes should only be used in combination with Last Whisper and abilities that benefit from it.
Because 40% of your armor pen will be useless with Last Whisper.
As far as I know there's only 2 champs with crit increasing abilities; Ashe and Tryndamere.
Remember that the damage of a Last Whisper build will be lower than a build with an AD item instead against those with below ~170armor. Not counting the attack speed bonus though.
Don't believe me? Calculations here. They take a ****load of space so I didn't wanna add them to this desc.
* Greater Mark of Desolation armor penetration reduced to 1,66
* Greater Mark of Strength damage increased to 0,95
* Greater Mark of Might damage per level increased to 2,43@lvl18
* Greater Quintessence of Desolation armor penetration reduced to 3,33