Shyvana Build Guide by TboydSteam
Not Updated For Current Season
In Depth Guide
Not Updated For Current Season
Threats to Shyvana with this build
|Garen||Remember to turn on burnout before he silences you and it's pretty difficult to lose. over time your W will outtrade judgement but you have to get the full duration off so just stand there and hit him when he spins on you. If Garen starts to play passively, remember to throw [[flame breath]] at him or harass him in some other way to keep his passive from healing him. If you land all your abilities, you'll never lose trades to him so don't be afraid. Just be careful about him hitting 6, as one mistake can throw your lane. Even if you fall behind however, you can just get a sunfire cape and he won't be able to touch you.|
|Dr. Mundo||Poses absolutely no threat to you unless you fall far behind him. Blade of the Ruined King is a viable rush against Mundo especially if he decides to build early magic resist. Otherwise Spirit Visage is your go-to. Mundo is very weak early but it's difficult for Shyvana to bully him directly without eating a facefull of cleaver, so try to position yourself close to him but behind minions so you can punish him whenever he uses one. Mundo is very difficult to kill post level 6 so if you plan on snowballing off of him it's important to make your move before he gets his ultimate. If you can't manage to kill him, focus on keeping your lane as pushed as possible so you're more free to roam than he is. Your scaling into late game is also quite similar to Mundo's so in general Shyvana is a very safe pick against him.|
|Hecarim||Quite like Shyvana but just doesn't really stand up to her. Shyvana can stack armor to deal with most of his damage and can go at him endlessly while hecarim has pretty notable mana issues. Many Hecarims will run teleport/ignite however, so be ready for the all in if this is the case.|
|Shyvana is an AD/Hybrid bruiser who up until a few seasons ago hadn't seen much play at all, and even when she did it was primarily in the jungle. After a small rework to her flame breath she became a hotly contested pick in pro games, being played in both jungle and top lane. Even after nerfs, she remains one of the strongest champions in the game and has the potential to be strong during all phases of the game in multiple roles. Deciding to pick up Shyvana can be a very smart choice as she is simply a powerhouse who has something to offer to almost any team.In the top lane, Shyvana applies constant pressure to her lane opponent with her top tier dueling prowess and pushing ability, Keeping her opponent pinned while she is free to roam. What Shyvana lacks in crowd control or utility she makes up for in raw defensive stats and damage, as her optimized base damage is among the highest in the game. As the game goes on, she becomes nearly unkillable and a nightmare for the enemy backline as she ults onto them in teamfights. Overall, Shyvana is a powerhouse of a champion that can pay huge dividends when placed with the right mix of utility on her team.Hello and thank you for reading my guide. I've played since early 2012 (ziggs patch) and have mained top lane exclusively throughout. I finished in Gold season 2 and Diamond season 3 and have a great deal of experience in solo queue, ranked 5s, and offline tournaments. My champion pool consists mostly of tanks and I have a consistent playstyle that focuses on drawing pressure towards toplane so that other objectives can be taken by the rest of my team. My summoner name on NA is Valkyrai and you can find my stream at www.twitch.tv/steamcario. Thanks for reading!|
Pros / Cons
Greater Mark of Precision
Greater Seal of Armor
Greater Glyph of Scaling Magic Resist
Greater Quintessence of Attack Damage
touch my butt
The 9-21 setup gives shyvana a good mix of stats and a safer transition into late game along with early sustain.
The 21-9 setup focuses on turning Shyvana into a potent bully in lane and in skirmishes
Still the best summoner spell in the game and good in any situation. It's important as a laner to have an escape summoner spell, Since Burnout accomplishes what ghost would on a low cooldown, flash is going to be your best option since it opens up so many plays and is so simple and effective both offensively and defensively.
The meta choice and the one with the best synergy, allows you to freely split push anywhere on the map and join your team at any time. In addition you need to be running teleport to efficiently start a jungle camp at level 1 and return to lane. Pretty much something you want to run every game because it really extends your pressure and is what frees you up to play farmville, something shyvana does better than almost anyone else.
Formerly standard on top laners, you need this to really give you any sort of kill potential against other top laners. If you don't carry it, most other top laners could carry it and then outduel you, which is very important to be aware of as shyvana's power in lane comes from her ability to win all ins. Never really good to take over teleport, but you could take this over flash if you want to cheese people.
Has really great synergy with her W, but this is more of a jungle Shyvana choice. It's also extremely easy to work around the de-buff and it's not so effective in tank fights, ignite is generally going to be more consistent and reliable.
As mentioned before, Burnout will function just fine in situations where ghost would be useful and it'll almost always be a better option to just run flash and have more diversity. Taking ghost however will allow you to super stick to someone pretty much forever and for sure maximize your W damage output when used. Viable if you really, really love ghost, but unless you have to, just stick with flash.
Another solid choice, provides more early power but falls on its face if you fall behind. This is generally what you want to take against weak laners or ones who are heavily AoE based, as doran's shield's passive blocks single target damage only.
These are stronger on Shyvana than they are on most champions because Shyvana benefits tremendously from the tenacity this offers, as crowd control is very detrimental to her kit. Unless the enemy team is AD heavy I prefer to default to this choice of boots as there's no other good way to get tenacity from the top lane. Of course against an AP heavy team or any CC heavy comp these are an absolute must. Since movespeed is a very valuable stat on shyvana early in the game to aid in skirmishes, it's generally good to finish these (or ninja tabi) somewhat early on.
These are very effective against an AD heavy comp but aren't generally as desired as merc treads. Shyvana is naturally tanky so the extra stats aren't as strong, but these will be your go-to whenever merc treads aren't an option. These are also a great pickup whenever you're laning against a super auto attack heavy top laner such as Tryndamere.
Getting this item first allows Shyvana to be both extremely tanky while dealing nearly unparalleled sustained AoE damage for a bruiser throughout the midgame. If you're against an AD lane, once you complete this item you'll be stronger than almost anyone, and certainly strong enough to completely dominate midgame teamfights. Since the item has useful stats and synergizes with Shvyana's teamfight pattern of spreading AoE damage, this item is a must at some point in almost every game.
While this item doesn't exactly have the greatest synergy with Shyvana's kit, it's generally going to be your best choice for Magic Resist. This is especially against an AP laner as this item offers a good deal of lane sustain alongside tanky stats. This item doesn't stand out as far as magic resist choices however, so if it's more important to be able to avoid a single crucial spell, Banshee's Veil could be the better choice.
This item has superb synergy with Shyvana's kit, adding a great deal of damage late game while its build path allows shyvana to sustain herself through the early game. This item can be a good rush in lanes that you want to snowball or against champions who like to stack health such as Dr. Mundo. In addition, it allows shyvana to itemize lifesteal, greatly increasing her lane sustain. One of the best things about building this item is that Bilgewater Cutlass is powerful as a standalone item so if you want you can build the cutlass and then finish blade later on. Blade itself is fantastic on Shyvana not only because of the stats but because she can very efficiently apply the passive and the active ability helps her stick to opponents she otherwise would get kited by. Overall, not an absolute must, but this should usually be your first choice of damage item.
Like Blade of the Ruined King, this item has fantastic synergy on Shyvana, but in general just isn't as consistent. The one main reason to build this item on Shyvana is to abuse the passive proccing over multiple targets when she uses dragon form Q, causing a massive amount of AoE damage in the area in front of her. While this is a fantastic scenario, it rarely happens, and when it does Shyvana generally doesn't even need this item to win the teamfight for her team as she has so much AoE damage already. Because of this fact hydra is somewhat of a "win-more" item on Shyvana. Overall though Hydra is still a very efficient buy on Shyvana but just simply isn't as consistently strong as Blade of the Ruined King is on her.
An extremely niche item in general but incredibly powerful on Shyvana when the situation calls for it. In general Banshee's Veil and Spirit Visage are better choices for magic resist, however if the team compositions are both extremely magic heavy, the ability to steal magic resist from an AoE of enemies suddenly becomes extremely valuable. Other than that situation however, this item overall is just too weak to be built as opposed to the other choices.
If you're really desperate to stick to people and are far stronger than them this can become a viable choice. Just be careful when pursuing this item though, it has an awkward build path and simply is not efficient, so once you finish it you could potentially find yourself much weaker than you'd expect. I would generally recommend trying to find away to avoid building this item. Item actives such as Blade of the Ruined King and Randuin's Omen should be enough to help Shyvana stick.
This item is very effective at countering auto attack heavy champions such as the marksman and thus is a very strong buy late in the game. This item is also a potential rush against champions who rely heavily on auto attacks that shyvana cannot duel such as Tryndamere or Fiora. Usually however I'd never recommend building this before sunfire cape, as sunfire cape is simply strongest earlier on while this is strongest in teamfights. The passive is great for lowering the enemy team's DPS if you dive right onto them and the active is great for applying CC to the enemy team or to help you stick to someone you're chasing. Overall I'd generally build this every game but not until later on.
A new addition to league's item offerings, gives a good combination of tankiness, mobility, and CC that helps shyvana do her job. Though I'm not a fan of this item early on, After a randuins and probably a sunfire, this can be a great armor item to pick up late game if you're just not quite sticking enough and the enemy team isn't AD based enough for you to want to pick up a thornmail.
Somewhat of a niche item, but underrated and very powerful against certain champions. This still builds out of Spectre's Cowl, so you don't have to commit to this over a Spirit Visage right away. Very useful to avoid certain high impact spells such as Death Sentence or Javelin Toss. The shield can also be used to sponge crowd control if you're only expecting one crowd control to come your way from a support such as from Taric. Overall though this generally isn't as reliable which is why it's not a core option.
Somewhat of a niche item, but allows Shyvana to be nigh-invincible against an AD heavy comp. Build this after sunfire and randuin's against a team full of AD and watch them hurt themselves more than they hurt you. If you're in a position to build this I'd recommend skipping damage items until this is completed as you'll experience an enormous power spike against AD when you complete this with other armor. Even in situations where you're not against all AD, this can still be a very good buy if their AP mid lacks good AoE or generally wouldn't be going after you such as LeBlanc. Also a very potent 6th item in general.
Great to simply add a ton of durability and allow Shyvana to endure long sieges. Since Shyvana gets a good deal of free defensive stats from her passive and you'll build a good amount every game, itemizing health can allow you to live much longer. Generally be on the lookout for a Void Staff or Last Whisper in the enemy builds, this is a great pickup if they go for penetration builds, just look out for %health damage. Warmog's can also be a great buy to help Shyvana sustain over long siege battles as otherwise she can be susceptible to being poked down without a baron buff. Overall a strong pickup especially against a team with AP poke.
Good just to aid in general survival or to help your team win that one last fight to win the game. Generally a good thing to build if for one reason or another you're just exploding to mixed damage and need to live longer or if you're trying to close out a game. this should generally be rare build however because Shyvana generally has more problems with sticking than she does with exploding and warmogs will be much better if there's a lot of seiging. Before building this item carefully consider if you're truly blowing up or if you're just being kited to death. This item will be a waste in the latter case.
mmmm buttsbutts butts butts
Skillset in Depth
butt touch time
Passive - Dragonborn
Shyvana gains 5 / 10 / 15 / 20 armor and magic resist. These bonuses are doubled in Dragon Form.
Free stats, this is an element of what makes Shyvana so difficult to duel and such a brick wall, also gives you even more incentive to use your ult at the start of the fight. not much else to discuss here.
Q - Twin bite
Active: Shyvana's next autoattack will strike twice in one swift movement. The second attack will deal 80 / 85 / 90 / 95 / 100%AD physical damage . Both attacks will trigger on-hit effects. Shyvana's autoattacks against non-structures reduce the cooldown of Twin Bite by 0.5 seconds.
Dragon Form: Twin Bite will damage all units in front of Shyvana when she uses her next autottack instead of just her target. Each unit hit will trigger on-hit effects and grant fury twice.
Auto attack reset that hits for more damage. Great for applying on hit effects like Blade of the Ruined King or Flame Breath debuff. When trading, be sure to properly auto attack reset by using the ability right after landing an auto, otherwise the ability will not be used the most effective way possible. The Dragon form version of this spell spreads the love to all units in front of Shyvana and also applies on-hit affects in AoE. This allows for ridiculous damage potential scenarios with Blade of the Ruined King or Ravenous Hydra. This spell is also off cooldown quite often when dueling, as basic attacks reduce the already low cooldown. While with what the base skill does (auto reset + buffed damage on next attack) is strong, it doesn't scale so hard with levels in the skill, making this ability an ideal one point wonder.
W - Burnout
Shyvana surrounds herself in flame for 3 seconds, dealing 20 / 35 / 50 / 65 / 80 (+ 20% bonus AD), dealing a maximum of 140/245/350/455/560 (+ 140% bonus AD) magic damage to enemies within 162.5 range each second and gaining 30 / 35 / 40 / 45 / 50% bonus movement speed. The bonus movement speed decreases by 15% of its original value per second. Burnout deals 20% extra damage to monsters. While active, Shyvana's attacks will deal 25% of Burnout's damage per second as bonus magic damage. Shyvana's autoattacks extend the duration of Burnout by 1 second, to a maximum of 4 extra seconds.
Dragon Form: Shyvana now scorches the earth where she walks, leaving a trail of fire for 5 seconds that will continually deal the same magic damage per second to enemies that pass over it.
Shyvana's bread and butter ability that allows her to be an exceptional duelist early in the game. Burnout's magic damage scales with AD, which has already a high base damage. While dueling as Shyvana, you want to be able to have your burnout procing on the enemy for as long as possible to maximize damage output, as well as having an already landed Flame Breath. Most of the time dueling Shyvana through Burnout is not an option, however it is difficult to get the full duration off as Shyvana not only needs to stick to her opponent, but to also be able to basic attack. Wait to use Burnout until you're certain you can trade effectively as such, and avoid trading at all when it is on cooldown. This ability burns right through creeps, so avoid damaging them with it if you want to avoid pushing the enemy to their tower, especially in early game where Shyvana can be very susceptible to ganks. Try to trade away from them or just keep W off cooldown and try to intimidate your opponent without actually using it.
In dragon form, Burnout while also gaining movement speed, Shyvana leaves a trail behind of fire in her path for an extended period of time. This trail does the full Burnout damage to all enemies that stand on it, enlarging your W AoE and greatly boosting your teamfight impact.
This is the ability that wins Shyvana trades, lets her push and waveclear lighting fast, and makes her a monster in midgame fights. You should almost always be maxing this first because is scales so hard with rank.
E - Flame Breath
Active: Shyvana unleashes a fireball that travels in a line, dealing 60 / 100 / 140 / 180 / 220 (+ 60% AP) magic damage and marking enemies hit for 5 seconds. Basic attacks against marked enemies deal bonus magic damage equal to 2.5% of their maximum health (max. 100 vs. monsters).
Dragon Form: Flame Breath engulfs all units in a cone in front of Shyvana.
This ability used to be one of the absolute worst in the entire game but has now been reworked and is a decent harassing tool in lane as well as a great opening ability to Shyvana's combo. When trading, always use this ability first as the on-hit debuff adds a great deal of damage to Shyvana's trading, especially against the health stacking tanks she tends to lane against. In dragon form, use this before you use Twin Bite and it will end up applying the bonus damage to every champion in front of you, the AoE damage is also a welcome addition but is relatively low, most of Twin Bite's power comes from its debuff.
Ultimate - Dragon's Descent
Passive: Shyvana's basic attacks generate 2 fury, even in Dragon Form or against structures. While in human form, Shyvana passively generates 1/2/3 fury every 1.5 seconds.
Active: Shyvana transforms into a dragon and dashes to a target location. Enemies along her path take 175 / 300 / 425 magic damage and are pushed toward her target location. While in Dragon Form, Shyvana's fury decays at a rate of 5 per second. Once her fury is depleted, she will return to her normal state.
Dragon's Descent has no cooldown or initial cost but can only be activated when Shyvana has 100 fury.
A very powerful ultimate, not only noted for it's power of just its active, but for all the bonus AoE range on all of her skills. This ultimate is generally on a very low cooldown, as auto attacking greatly decreases the time for Dragon's Descent to be up again. Due to this, your ultimate will most likely be up before your enemy's. Dragon's Descent itself in reality doesn't add a ton to her dueling potential as it mainly serves to give her more AoE, but the functionality of this skill serving as a gap closer as well as a small amount of burst is plenty enough to let her all-in against her lane opponent.
However, Shyvana's ultimate's true strength lies in teamfights. The transform is a brutally strong initiation if coupled with some form of AoE croud control (i.e. Shyvana + Orianna ultimate combination), and the increase in AoE on her Twin Bite, Burnout and Flame Breath allow her to make up for her lack of utility and crowd control by doing tons of damage to everyone. Because of this (and the long duration of the transform, as auto attacking generates fury as the ultimate eats fury) it's recommended to use your ult as early as possible in a teamfight.
Shyvana's innate base damage along with the level and item advantage from a jungle camp start allow her to be one of the most threatening powerhouses of the top lane. In general, if you can, start a jungle camp at your jungler's permission. Generally this will be the raptor camp as it's generally neglected by junglers and Shyvana clears it just fine. With a doran's item start, Shyvana can clear the camp and hit level 2 without using her potion. After clearing the camp, immediately recall, top off on health pots, and teleport to your tower to keep your experience advantage. During lane, Shyvana's best case scenario is to keep her opponent pressured at their tower while Shyvana is able to both clear out top lane and the enemy jungle as well. Her dueling ability is a threat as well as her powerful waveclear, making this scenario an accomplish-able goal. Even in the chance where you do lose your lane, building tank items can help continue to increase your farm. Your overall goal of lane phase is to farm as much as possible as well as bullying your opponent, so Shyvana can transition into teamfights, where Shyvana thrives.
Against melee opponents, it's very important to be mindful of when you use Burnout and why. While it's true that Shyvana can duel anyone, most melee top laners can kite her damage back or have sustain that forces Shyvana to make the most of her trades, so it's important when trading to approach from an angle that allows you to get the maximum duration off of Burnout. Use the top lane bushes to your advantage to get to your enemy at safe angle. Be careful about using your Burnout in the middle of the minion waves, which results in pushing your lane in the enemy's favor, leaving you vulnerable to ganks without a strong escape. Early in the game, it's generally best to try to force trades away from your minion wave or scare your opponents off of CS with aggressive positioning. It's extremely important when playing aggressive to place your trinket ward in either your tri-bush or the bottom of the river bush. Do what you can to track the enemy jungler to help you engage in safe skirmishes against your opponent. Generally junglers start the bottom side buff while then taking the 2nd buff shortly after, if they plan to gank, you can expect them to arrive in your top-lane a little after the 3 minute mark. Place your trinket ward, if possible, at around 3:00. If you can coordinate with your jungler you can have them countergank and swing the lane heavily in your favor as Shyvana is immensely strong in a 2v2 skirmish.
Against ranged opponents, Shyvana needs to do what she can to get as much farm as she can early on so she can win the lane later on as Pre-6 she can really struggle. It's generally smart to keep your distance and try to farm or counter-harass with Flame Breath as much as possible, only using Burnout if you can actually get within melee range quick enough to not take too much harass or when the wave hits your tower and you want to clear it more easily. Once you hit 6,assess whether or not said champion can kite you back far enough for fights. If possible, ult in at your ranged opponent if you think you can stick for long enough, as no ranged champion can fight Shyvana at melee range. Winning a lane against a ranged champion can be difficult, but if you can land skillshots, maxing E can allow you to bully them since they'll generally have lower sustain or mana costs associated with their poke.
When trading, always lead with Flame Breath and try to confirm that it hit before you engage your opponent as the bonus damage from the debuff is important. Once you know you're going in, use Burnout to help you close the distance and deal your damage. If possible, Always wait to use Twin Bite until right after you auto for the first time, as the auto attack timer will reset, allowing you to effectively attack 3 times in a very short time. When trading, try to auto attack as much as possible as doing so lowers the cooldown on Twin Bite and extends the duration of Burnout. Always try to hit your Flame Breath on the enemy as it is a great form of ranged harass from Shyvana.
Once you hit level 6, feel free to use your ultimate often, as autoattacks make the cooldown extremely low. However if you can't use it very impactfully, keep it up as it's an extremely potent escape mechanism that essentially makes you ungankable post 6 when it's up. You can also use your Burnout movespeed and ultimate to roam and gank mid or join a dragon fight. In most cases however, you'll want to keep top as pushed as possible later on in lane phase, allowing you to maintain a presence in the enemy jungle so that you can farm it and rotate down much faster if something develops. The best way to go about this when you leave a lane is to shove it tower and then farm one enemy wave between towers before leaving. However if you're in a situation where you want to deny your opponent such as a Nasus lane. try to position yourself away from the wave and farm without pushing. This will force your lane opponent to take heavy damage in order to get farm or force you to push the wave. In general you want to do everything in your power to bully your opponent so that their sphere of influence becomes their tower, while yours becomes the top half of the map.
In the event that you lose lane and are being denied EXP and farm, try to clear your jungle until the wave is in a safe place for you to farm. Then try to freeze it in front of your tower or just Burnout and clear the whole thing if it's hit your tower or your opponent won't let you freeze. Doing so can still allow you to transition safely into the teamfight phase where you will usually be more impactful than your lane opponent.
|Shyvana is frequently complained about by many people because of her ability to deal tons of damage while being unstoppably tanky, and this is completely true. Shyvana has both high innate damage and high innate tankiness, and only gets stronger and stronger as she builds items. Her fatal weakness in teamfights however is her lack of crowd control and utility and her weakness to enemy crowd control. In order for shyvana to get most of her damage out she has to really stick to her enemy and get as many basic attacks out as she can. In a crowded teamfight it's generally hard to do this for an extended period of time due to the amount of cc an entire team has and the surplus of mobility currently in the game, especially since shyvana has no crowd control herself. Because of this it's extremely important to make maximum use of her ultimate to place herself at the enemy back line, ideally with allied CC there as well. If Shyvana can reach the enemy back line along with allied CC she is completely free to get her massive amounts of AoE damage off unhindered and essentially win the teamfight just off of that. If Shyvana doesn't have any support from her team in her intiation, she'll be inevitably kited back and be forced off the back line or simply be killed. In a 5v5 situation it's absolutely important that shyvana pick the right moment to ult in, as it's the only strong mobility she gets. There are times that the best option won't be to ult the back line, but rather to peel by diving onto your own carries. Ultimately teamfighting effectively just comes down to experience as each teamfight is different. You have to assess each fight differently and choosing right in general is a skill that has to be acquired over the course of many games.|
On top of proper decision making, it's important to have good mechanics when fighting. Even if top isn't the most mechanical role and Shyvana isn't the most mechanical champion, there are still several things to look out for and to do properly to maximize her effectiveness. It's highly important to try to use dragon form Flame Breath early on in every teamfight, as every auto attack or Q splash to to the target afterwards will deal the bonus damage, which will add up over the course of a teamfight. When using Twin Bite on targets, always use it immediately after a regular auto connects to increase your damage. And Overall try to position yourself in the middle of the enemy team as much as possible, as all of your abilities in dragon form will deal a great amount of AoE damage. Last but not least, do not forget to use your item actives as they're the only forms of crowd control Shyvana will have access to and are absolutely important to her being able to do her job.
A great way to bypass a lot of Shyvana's weaknesses is to place her on a team that has the crowd control and utility that she lacks. champions like Zac, Amumu, Annie, Orianna and Ziggs all have the proper utility and crowd control to keep the enemy team from kiting shyvana around, allowing her to deal insane damage to the entire enemy team while being able to tank all of their damage. By the same token it's also important to avoid enemy team comps that have heavy disengage champions like Janna, Thresh, or Nidalee. As without a large amount of support from her team, Shyvana will not be able to get her damage down. In general, try to pick Shyvana into compositions that want to poke. Shyvana is strongest against a dive composition where she can freely counter initiate and completely disrupt the enemy back line while dragging the enemy frontline along with her.
One last thing to note about Shyvana in the later game is that she has the potential to be a strong split pusher with her strong dueling ability, fast waveclear, and high escape potential along with her excellent scaling with items. Though she's a strong split pusher, it's important to mind your teleport's cooldown as well as trying to avoid split push scenarios with opponents who do it better like Nasus or Shen. Though it's not inherently bad to split push against them, and you often will be forced to counter their split push, it's important to remember that those scenarios are more favorable for them than they are for you
Apparently lolskill says I'm the 4th best shyvana in NA (I am not). but if anything this shows I at least know what I'm doing.
02/04/2014 - Guide Released!
02/06/2014 - Edited title, Changed masteries up, fixed some typos.
02/11/2014 - Fixed broken images
02/14/2014 - Cleaned some things up, Added Warmog's Armor to items. Trundle matchup added.
03/5/2014 - Made some edits in response to Doran's Shield nerfs
05/30/2014 - I'm super not dead! revival along with some rune changes!
08/26/2014 - Fixed formatting issue with images
07/06/2015 - Season 5 Rerelease!
10/25/2015 - Several updates to masteries/runes/build etc. Added some changes to item section.