Ezreal Build Guide by Ezrea1
Mastery Tree Is Outdated
WARNING: These masteries are still using the old tree and have not been updated to the new tree by the guide author. As such, they will be different than the masteries you see in-game.
Hey Guys. I've written a completely new guide on AD carries which includes an in-depth look on Ezreal. It's a lot cleaner, better, and more up-to-date
Terra's guide on AD Carries.
3/9/11~Added different(sniper/AP/hybrid) builds along with videos.
3/10/11~Made certain sections more descriptive. Fixed broken pictures. Added Rising Spell Force to skill descriptions.
3/14/11~Added descriptive pictures like Ezreal to everything.
3/20/11~full build route slightly changed, Infinity Edge added.
3/25/11~Added monsters and buffs explanations under Jungle.
3/29/11~Redid the pictures with the ones that displays tooltip(thanks to EvilDice)
4/9/11~Added "scouting" section
7/26/11~Added new build and some changes
11/29/11~new masteries added. have fun guys :D
Hey guys, as you can probably tell already, this is an Ezreal guide and I am a person who freaking love Ezreal(no ****). Ezreal was like one of the first champs that I bought mainly 'cause he looks SO FRIGGIN' COOL! But when I first started playing him(back when recommended item made him AP, which is also after the heal removal), I pretty much when 0/0/4 all for a bit. I wondered why would Riot make a character SO COOL and make him so useless as compared to other mages like Annie or Swain. So I asked around some pro irl friends and they told me Ez works better AD, told me some items, and I started to play AD Ezreal. After that, things started to go uphill for this gamer. XD
Why Ezreal is a BA(Pros/Cons)
-LOT of fun to play once you get him
-Strong last hits(minions or champs) ;)
-Awesome abilities, HAS ACROSS THE MAP ULT
-/dance <---not even
-Squeeeeeeeeesheeeee(vulnerable to CC blah blah blah)
-Takes a little getting used to
-Requires SOME skill, not too much, just SOME
-Somewhat team reliant(just need 1~2 good teammate)
-Victim of internet bullying(he is NOT a girl =.=")
The different builds
OK! So uh....this is like my first time since forever updating because I can't play again. Sooooooo...I think it'll still be 4 going from left to right.
From left to right(up top), they are:
The original guide. Build for maximized damage and not a lot of survivability. Stomps and facerolls hellzahard.
This build is being changed into the current build that I use. It has potent damage as well as great survivability. The older build was basing off auto attacking too much and in the current meta I find that if I get out of position even 1 bit, people like to chunk me and dive through my team to kill me, and I just dont want that. So there's minor changes for the build and I think I might add an extra section explaining how it works. ^___^
For when you're high.
....no but seriously, supposedly with hybrid, you can nuke your enemy as well as keeping up a consistent DPS. I haven't gotten TOO in depth with hybrid. But if you guys are interested, go read StaticFX's hybrid Ez guide
^dayum haven't editted this in a long time. So like after the last 3(?) patches, Ez acttually scales pretty well with both and I think it's quite viable. But AD always #1, just sayin'. Sry static :P.
How Ezreal used to be played. Some people still consider this build to have a stronger overall damage and think that AP just does WAY better late game. It's true, AP Ez full spell combo IS STRONGER THAN AD. But note that Ezreal is also a mean auto attacker. With AD build and his passive, he has potential to Master Yi the enemy team at a range. But to build AP Ez, you just need a generic mage build with Lich Bane to makedo scale off your AP.
Ignite does true damage over 5 seconds to one opponent while it halves their healing effects(such as lifesteal, summoner spell heal, or a healing ability). It's a great tool to last hit your enemy if you needed it before you hit level 6 or if they have some kind of Dr. Mundo thing going on. People usually tell me that ignite on Ez is not necessary and such. But I think that ignite works well with Ezreals damage combo and his overall role as a carry.
FKING LOVE IT. I just fallen in love in flash ever since like....prolly around Dreamhack, like everyone else. I find that I initiate with Arcane Shift too much and get killed after maybe getting 1 or 2 kills myself. Ghost is nice but it just doesn't cut it when there's a Gangplank or Twisted Fate. With this, go in, get kills, get out alive, get more kills.
Ghost is a great spell. It makes your character Usain Bolt for 10 seconds. It's used for when you need to gank/rush somewhere/escape. It gives you a lot of mobility and survivability. Most of the times I use it defensively or for mobility, only a small chunk of the times I use it to catch up to a runner.
Other Great Choices:
Clense+Ghose+E=Get out of most(if not all) scary situation.
Port teleports you to a friendly minion/turret/shroom/box/thing after like 3 seconds of channeling. It's great because it gives you a lot of mobility for ganking or getting back to lane if you screw up early. You can also teleport to a tower after ulting towards it(kind of like the Ashe Ult+port trick but without CC) for a free kill. You can also get to a fight immediately with port via nearby minion. I don't usually take port because I use my ultimate for supporting fights that are far away and port simply can't get you into a good position like ghost can unless you have really good coordination with your team about where to ward.
Exhaust is pretty much like ignite except that it almost completely disables your enemy instead of damaging them slowly. Take this if people on your team already have ignite but nobody has exhaust. This move can be used to disable a carry/disable a ganker/disable a tank/disable someone who's channeling their ult/disable a chaser/disable a runner/etc.
I've seen a lot of Ezreals I played against in pub take this. This is pretty much a "double checker" for when you need wanna ult some noob while he has low hp. Not only is this your "eye in the sky." You can always use this to keep yourself safe in lane by checking interest bush or the river(you can do this for your allies too!) when an MIA is called. It's also used like Ashe's hawk shot to scout and to check buffs/baron/dragon. Take this in ranked games if no one on your team has one(and if you need it).
Recovers some mana. It's a pretty good support spell to take but Ezreal doesn't really need it if you play smart and not waste any mana.
The "Don't EVEN" Section
An "OK" spell dispite all the hate. An effectively placed heal can actually save a team fight or save a dire situation. But Ezreal is so ranged so he won't: 1)get hurt. 2)keep all teammates within effective range of it. Save it for a tank or something.
Defend towers with your ultimate if you're not there.
see "jungle Ezreal"
I'm not much of a rune person. I didn't get ANY runes until I was level 30 and I got all tier 1 runes, and I only got them because of peer pressure. Anyways I don't think runes are THAT important(plus, it's player skill that really counts!) because they only work for you early game and sort of falls out later on but here's how my runes work!
Marks are offensive runes. For ANY carry, you want Armor Penetration(ArPen). Enough of it ignores all of your opponents armor early game so your auto attack is like true damage.
Seals and Glyphs are usually defensive or for utility. I get MP5(mana per 5)/lvl(per lvl) seals on Ezreal because I get no mana regen with this build. This might seem to lack early game but with a solo lane, the benefits catches up fast. You can replace with CDR or anything you want.
Like seals, they're mostly for defensive purposes or for utility. I like to get CDR/lvl on mine. But then again, you can switch them out for MP5/lvl if you think Ezreal comes with enough CDR already.
These big boys actually matter. For one, you can only have 3 of them. But each one's effect is like 5 of the smaller runes. For Ezreal, I like to get Flat HP because I tend to play ballsy early game and it also lets me take more harassments. But ArPen Quints are also a very legit choice on Ezreal.
I really like the new mastery change for Ez because you can really choose whatever you like(mostly in the offense tree though) to your taste and it wouldn't have a negative impact on him in game because of his flexibility(pretty much almost anything you choose will benefit him the same 1 way or another). I think it's usually a pretty good idea to take 21 in offensive and 9 points in defense for a pretty nice survivability boost. You almost don't get anything useful in the utility tree unless you're a mage or a support so don't go there unless you really want that summoner flash cooldown reduc.
This is your passive. Some consider this the skill that sets AD and AP Ezreals apart. And It definitely separates the good and bad AD Ezreals. Early game it's pretty much useless unless you're pushing(for some reason) and you're stacking attack speed with Mystic Shot. Then, It gives really good pushing potential. You also take advantage of this whenever you push. Use your spells on an enemy minion and proc up the stacks to increase your damage to the tower. Late game, this gives you CRAZY farming capability(vs. AP Ez, which has none) and SIGNIFICANTLY increases your overall DPS in a teamfight, especially if you have Madred's Bloodrazor.
<---procs on-hit such as lifesteal, The Black Cleaver, and Sheen
Your MIKURU BEAMU and pretty much AD's Ezreal's heart. It's the reason AD surpasses AP. It's extremely spammable and is able to keep up consistent damage output anytime of the day with Ezreal. With Sheen, it turns into an early game nuke. WANT. Advice: USE IT.
Your other MIKURU BEAMU. Although not as high damage as Q. But it DOES bypass all minions and directly hits champions. It does meh damage. It's an above average choice to harass if you got a full runeset and isn't worried about mana. Comes with a sweet attack speed buff/debuff(buffs allies, debuffs enemies). Use it when your team is pushing a turret to increase their overall dps as well as proc'ing your passive and increasing your own dps.
It gives you Itsuki's esper powers. It's Ezreal's built in flash(that's why we didn't take the summoner spell). We max this second because it reduces cooldown on the spell early and gives the damage a little more OOMPH to it. Used to KS people from 20 feet away because it homing. Also used to get yourself into a good position for a teamfight and your combo. On max CDR, its cooldown is 6.6 seconds. 5.6 if you account the fact that it goes down by 1 second once you hit something with Mystic Shot.
THIS IS YOUR ULTIMATE MIKURU BEAMU. YES. It's the one where he starts to hover in the air, pulls out a giant bow, poses, and goes "HHHYYYAAAAAAAAA, sssshhhhhhuuuuuuuu, AN ENEMY HAZ BIN SLAIN!" Use this early game to last hit low health champs. In teamfights, you have 2 options with this. You can either initiate with this and wack a giant chunk off errbawdie's hp which also gives you max stacks on your passive if you got a good aim. This option when your team has sufficient chasers(Yi/Blitz/those "OH NO YOU DON'T" people). Your other option is to use your usual combo in the team fight without using this to initiate. This gives you the option to last hit runners. Use this option when your team has good damage but can't chase.
makes Ez OP.
GET IT! LEARN IT! USE IT!
...If you don't know what it is. It's in your key-bindings option in your in-game menu. It practically makes all of your skills work like Karthus Q or Urgot Q. Basically you aim and press the button and your spell auto casts without you clicking. Also OP on Annie.
Items(Old Core and situationals)
Oh gawd this is gonna take a long time to write. o.o
Like I said, Ezreal is EXTREMELY versatile and can work with many items. But core build consists of: Trinity Force, The Brutalizer(Brut), The Black Cleaver, and The Bloodthirster(or just a Vampiric Scepter is fine too).
Sheen doubles your AD when you cast a spell, which works in perfect synergy with your Q. Think of it as an "auto-crit" like Gangplank's Q(only base AD, so not really a crit, just similar/Thanks Footyballs for clarifying this), so just not as much damage.
Practically a necessity for ANY AD carry. Gives your adequate early game damage, ArPen, and CDR for all of your moves but mostly your ultimate. I used to rush this before I realized Sheen gives "auto-crit". Later sold to make room for Infinity Edge.
Pretty core on a lot of carries. Mainly that it gives you good AD, some AS, as well as a buttload of armor reduction. Reducing armor is basically amplifying your damage against enemies. PROFIT.
BT is an expensive item. That's why I only get a vamp scepter for the lifesteal early and complete it into a BT later on. But it's expensive for a reason. With its passive, your damage and lifesteal stacks up as you farm. If you can max its stacks and stay alive well enough, it gives you +100 AD and +25% LS. THAT'S A LOT.
BR shreds tanks with its passive. With Ezreal's attack speed buffing passive and the other attack speed items from this build, it can tear up a tank pretty bad late game.
THIS ITEM IS TRI-WINNING. This badboy gives you the benefits of Sheen, Phage, and Zeal all in one package. It gives awesome all-around stats(which is critical in balancing the game of a carry), and a bunch of 1337 on-hit effects that you can exploit with your Q. MUST HAVE!
WANT. High damage. +50% damage on crits. Makes late game auto attack DEVASTATE.
BV is an awesome survivability item for squishies. It gives average HP and mana but the spell bubble block initial bursts in a team fight. Once that's gone, the enemy's output won't be as high and you will be safer. I tend to not take this and go all out damage build because I usually play pretty safe and use Arcane Shift to position myself far back in team fights. I moved this up to main item because you want this in case the have a ryze or something(see screen cap). If I didn't get this, I actually would've had one death.
Used to be a main item. Removed from main section because you need your Brut early and that's about it. Build your Brut into this if you REALLY want or if you can't bear to sell something that's been with you all game long.
Once in a while a game goes bad and the enemy gets fed and do crazy damage to your entire team. Go to Mallet from Phage instead of going Tri-Force for the extra HP.
A meh choice. I used to get this because it gives attack speed, damage, and a little bonus for your ultimate. Now it is no longer necessary. Get it if you have a Rageblade fetish from playing Jax.
So the enemy team had a Karthus.
....jk but seriously this item is pretty underrated. Its effect is awesome. AD+MRES+a little magical damage bubble. Get it for that Karthus.
Funky hybrid item. Not really for a serious AD build. But it IS fun watching youself vamp off that ultimate.
This is for when that enemy Rammus has over 9000 armor. It makes 40% of that obsolete. Most of the times though, you're fine with Brut and Cleaver.
*NOTE~It's pronouced "Mana-Moo-Nay"(very much liek Sephiroth's Masanune, ohohoho, punny), not "Man-a-muuuunne".
This is a great item for beginners on Ezreal. Gives AD as well as a bottomless manapool. It's not necessary after you get used to Ezreal's moves and how much mana he has. Or when you always get blue buff.
These are such great big items. I LOVE Phantom Dancers. Too bad they're not for Ezreal. Phantom dancers work for the Lord of Right Clicks( Master Yi, Tryndamere, Xin Zhao). Ezreal is more of the attack and cast type(like Pantheon).
For when you just straight up die once every 5 minutes. But also gives you good armor and a lil' MRES. Makes your HP very effective.
I don't see this item being used very often in game. It's a good choice when the enemy Malzahard is running 16/0/2 and he's just busy wacking away at your team. This is when you sneak up from the back with your full stack passive, right-click, and watch his mana and hp burn away.
This is good when you're new to Ezreal and haven't quite gotten the last hitting concept yet. Great farming item as well as vamp. Also gives pretty decent stats. Also buy when not fed enough to buy BT. Did I forget to mention it comes with a free ward every 3 minutes?
This is a great item when you get a great start. It's pretty easy to ks with Ezreal so it's not hard to get stacks. Ezreal also has great escape mechanisms so you won't lose your stacks that easily. But for some reason, I've never really trusted snowball items except with Eve.
Berserker's Greaves~Standard for most DPS carries. Gives you a little more edge to your damage. Easily replaced in Ezreal's case.
Mercury's Treads~Easily second choice for when the enemy team is Malphite/Sion/Taric/Morgana/Ashe
Boots of Mobility(gank boots)/ Boots of Swiftness~also pretty standard for ranged carries after the speed nerf. Get ganks boots if you like to be mobile. Swiftness if you don't trust the stability of gank boots.
Ninja Tabi~to dodge the crit from that Twitch, Xin Zhao, or Master Yi.
Ionian Boots of Lucidity~Gives good overall CDR. Not really required but get it if you like your CD's reduced early.
Now let's look at how we should build him in certain situations, don't leave out an early game The Brutalizer for any of them.
Your usual build:
For those average games you play. OFC don't forget to buy a The Brutalizer early game and sell it later on.
Only diffence being sword of the occult. You take this build when there's no doubt you'll be winning a game but it's just taking too long because there a duo troll on opposite team that won't surrender. This makes the whole process quicker.
VS tanky team
You take out your favorite BT for a BV since many tanks comes with CC's. Last 2 anti-tank items, depending on what the enemy team is building against you, order will vary.
VS Magical heavy team
Most of the times, your core won't change. Only thing different might be to throw in a Hexdrinker inbetween triforce and cleaver.
detailed build order:
+ + + > > + + > > + +LAST ITEM
if more shooting is required, this is the hardest chunking item in terms of shooting Q or R
if you auto attack more than others. this is best AD booster in game
chunks tanks. good vs. current tanky meta. especially if all 5 stacks armor because you're getting REALLY FED. last whisper+this. s**t on them hard.
you might want to have this as your last item in case you're in a tough game and the enemy is quite persistent in staying alive and focusing you. with this. die, rez, then E gtfo and kill them from afar.
Derived from "The Melancholy of Suzumiya Haruhi" anime. It's been proven by science that watching Haruhi WILL make you play Ezreal better. If you're already a great Ez player, it will raise your Ez skills about 32.8%. It's science. So go on Youtube or Crunchyroll right now and watch. :3
^yes it's ep2, it's the real ep1.
After the games loads and everything. Grab a mana crystal and head to mid lane. Stand by your turret and dance for a minute. OH~MAI~FRIGGN~GAWD! That dance is awesome, it will lower your opponents lane ability because it is so sexy. Last hit every single minion you can and be sure not to push. Use Mystic Shot if you have to. Just farm farm farm farm farm farm farm and get a lot of CS(creep score). But if you do decide to push for future benefits, make sure you have enough mana for Arcane Shift and Ghost/ Flash so you can pop both if you get ganked or if something surprising happens. Once you hit level 6, look around the map for an easy target for your ultimate. If the enemy has a jungler, predict where he is at, and ask whoever has Clairoyance in your team to check. Once, the jungler's location is revealed. Shoot that BAMFat him and steal his buff and get first blood and whatnot. X3
NEW BUILD LANING GUILD(AGRRESSIVE)
Same concept, grab Doran's Blade and run to mid(or side). Still the same routine: /d. DANCE THE NUTS OUT OF THE OTHER LANE. SHOW THEM NO RESPECT. IT MAKES YOU STRONGER. With Doran's Blade, you have more base AD and more room to play aggressive and whatnot. So first up, grab every single last hit you can, it's still vERY IMPORTANT TO LAST HIT. But now, every single chance you get, chunk your enemy with your Mystic Shot. Vs. a squishy, that should be 1/4~1/5 of their max hp. After 2~3 shots, you should be prepared to go for first blood. Make sure you have E and/or not W up and go for it.
*E in their face and make sure it hits*. If it doesn't, you might not have enough damage to drop them even WITH Ignite. But if you do land it, W>Q>D>auto and it's always free first blood. ^w^
Aside from mid, Ezreal also makes a pretty boss side laner. If some other cocky pub/pro friend wants mid, let them have it. Because of his range, Ezreal can zone like crazy with a good lane partner. Now my best friend plays a crazy*** Singed(he runs Heal/Ghost). He rarely tries to play safe in lane and charges in head first like a suicide bomber. Most of the times, we can easily get first blood after hitting level 2 where he ghosts up, flings some noob, I ignite followed by. They usually don't get pass that. But even if they do, he still runs in and flings the guy right back to me. But with the release of Karma, this strategy has been less and less effective. However, you CAN lane with a good harass, and pull off a great zone.
Here is Shurelia's Zoning Guide
*NOTE*~Once you hit level 6. Announce to your teammate that you have yourand you can pick off anyone with low hp in lane. Also announce it every you ult to help an ally so they know it's coming and can take advantage of that.
*2nd NOTE*~Likewise, if you're midding against an enemy Karthus/Ez/Ashe, make sure you announce to your teammates when they hit level 6. So your team are prepared for a cross map ult.
This is the point in the game where skirmishes breaks out and people start ganking other lanes. When ganking with Ezreal, your skill combo should be
where as =auto attack. OR:
*NOTE*~Use to get into position and always shoot before shooting because has a shorter range AND hitting will reduce everything's CD.
*2nd NOTE*~A problem I have with pubs sometimes is that they don't call MIA's(when your lane enemy is missing) when they leave lane to gank/shop/die(or don't call mia PERIOD =.=). Remember that it's always your responsibility to call MIA's for your own lane no matter the situation(early game atleast).
Late game you wanna just stick with your team and team fight. Personally, I think Ezreal makes a better jungle fighter than one that's in lane because you can always flash across the wall with Arcane Shift and shoot enemies from the other side while your tanks takes all the damage. Your combo should be the same as when you gank(refer to the section right above). Your only other option is to fire your ultimate as a finisher instead of an initiator(as explained in the Skill Sequence section). When you're tower pushing, don't forget to shoot your team with Essence Flux to increase the speed you guys push towers.
Baron and Dragon
Baron Nashor and Dragon are two important jungle creatures in the game. They give buttloads of gold to your entire team when killed. Thats why it's important to control them. By control I don't mean stand in front of their den all day and just wait. I mean drop a ward there every once in awhile and pay attention to it. If you see your enemies gathering by, notify your team and get in position to ks it. So you have your team nearby. Wait until the enemy has dragon down to about (insert trueshot barrage current damage here), and drop Trueshot Barrage on that badboy and destroy the entire enemy team. After that, push. Profit.
Sometimes you walk into a solo lane or mid game you walk by dragon thinking "I wonder if it's safe". We'll with Ezreal we have a built in scouting system called Rising Spell Force.
Shoot into bush. Anywhere where you suspect an unseeable enemy maybe. Best scouting tool because of range. CAUTION: hits wards(I think last patch changed this someone confirm for me? :D)
Shoot into monster den or bush. Pros: tells exact number of champions hit. Cons: danger zone range. 2nd best scout tool.
Although it may not seem like much, it's "homing arrow" targets nearby stealthed units like Evelynn or Teemo. Use when you suspect something is "UP" in your lane. In fact, use all of these when you suspect something is "up" in your lane. Better to be low on mana than dead.
Without a doubt one of the BAMFest ultimate Riot has ever come up with. The ability to pick off any low hp noob on the map. I know it takes some practice, but it's one of the best feelings ever when you hear "HHHHYYYYYYYYAAAAAAAA shhhhhhhhhhhhh" and see that yellow wave go into the abyss and moments later "an enemy haz bin slain" and see the other team go "ASDFKL maphax0rz!!!!" If you think you need help, start our using Clairvoyance to double check.
Here is an AMAZING video of Ezreal Ultimates played by NinjAChurch to get you started on the idea of how it works.
^Personally I don't recommend his ballsy playstyle but THIS GUY. KNOWS. HOW. TO. FRICKIN. SNIPE!
Jungle Ezreal? qterfg#$TREGDRF35tyryreg????(and later jungle control)
Ezreal doesn't usually start jungle because he can easily dominate his lane. I originally had Stonewall008's video but it has been removed from Youtube. If you guys wanna troll with jungle Ezreal I think there's a guide on MobaFire for it.
Buff and Monster control(thanks EvilDice for reminder, how did I forget to talk about this?)
AKA "red". As name explains, you get this when you kill the Elder Lizard, or an enemy who has this. It adds a slight DoT(Damage over time) as well as a 15%?(25% for melee I think) slow to your auto attacks. Gives incredible potential to your regular attack as well as a mild form of CC.
AKA "blue". Granted by the larger Golems. Gives awesome mana regen as well as 15% cooldown reduc. This is also a good excuse NOT TO BUY if you don't have runes for mana. CDR is also handy for your ultimate CD as well as for those epic escapes.
This giant thang spawns quite often in game. I don't know the exact time it spawns but right around when mid-game starts, you want to keep this big boy warded. Even though it doesn't give a buff, it gives as much gold as a tower. Usually you can gank unawaring enemies trying to dragon for an early ace and a LOT of profit.
This is the ultimate jungle monster that you never want the other team to kill. Always keep it warded late game. Killing it grants gold, bonus AD, bonus AP, Bonus MAX HP/MP, as well as HP/MP regen.
EASY WAY TO PROFIT OFF ENEMIES TRYING TO GET THE MONSTERS
. You know that? You know the area behind the wall of Baron/Dragon den? Stand there. Use it. Have your team move in and massacre. Profit.
So apparently I realized I don't have a single Ezreal screen-cap and went out of my way to play one to prove to you guys I'm not bs-ing. I am sooooo tri-winning this.
^11/0/21. Large was ksing the **** out of me and wasn't being nice about it! :I
Ez es 2gud. HAVE to SHOW THIS OFF.
Mostly my irl friends that I play with. They're not the 2000+ players and they're not CLG(who are now on Moba yay). But they're a great bunch of guys that are just fun to play with and are great to chill with. Doesn't even matter if we win, it's all in good fun. Thanks guys! ^W^
TerraAquaVen <-This one's actually my IGN, not special thanks to me, just wanted to be next to mah palz :3
philostar <---That BAMF Singed
J S Y
Save The Babeh
And you guys, for reading my giant wall of text(damn do I love ranting) and please comment below and also teach me new tricks about Ezreal! :D
PS*~Make requests for builds for Carry/Jungler/Mage/Tank(maybe tanks) type characters down below too!!!~~ ^___^
Miniguide: Mystical Shooting
By Gott der 7 Meere
Time for a True display of everything (Spanish)
Internet Explorer Ezreal
Ezreal - It's Over 9000! (AD Carry Build Guide)